Wcag 2.0 level aa color contrast

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I can serve up a different colour for browsers that don't support text-shadow, but I'd like to try to keep the button the same colour to match brand guidelines for the majority of users. As background - I'm using a web font that doesn't have a bold variation, and I don't want to faux bold it. WCAG is an interesting standard as its very difficult to meet and its difficult to automate tests.

Often its important to use critical thinking, and have a solid argument for a position. Your case is a prime example of that.

If I had white text on a white background, with a clear, black outline on the text common sense suggests you would pass. If you are able to render the text clearly with an outline that is contrasted to either the text or the background you'd be able to make a case for passing this test.

wcag 2.0 level aa color contrast

However, the only viable solution is a much darker outline you can't go lighter than the white text which may be visually clashing, so take precaution. Also, I'd argue that the shadow would need to be clear to ensure that the text is still readable.

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I'd strongly recommend taking part of this question to User Experience. SE to get their opinion on a white text on an orange background, as they may be able to offer a more redable alternative that keeps with your branding.

Is it possible to invert the Foreground colors? But shadow will not be considered by automatic checker.

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Learn more. Asked 7 years ago. Active 7 years ago. Viewed 3k times. Background - D Foreground - FFF Is it possible to use text-shadow to boost the contrast — would that be seen as a pass?

Improve this question. Brent Dayman. Brent Dayman Brent Dayman 53 1 1 silver badge 7 7 bronze badges. Real world use of this strategy is presented in a Smashing Magazine article. Active Oldest Votes. Improve this answer. Thanks for the response Lego Stormtroopr - yes I was thinking of a darker shadow that would try to balance blending with the background - whilst still creating an acceptable amount of contrast. I will check out the link you provided and post back with the results.

I'd vote your answer up - but I have no reputation BrentDayman You don't need rep to upvote an answer if it is helpful, nor to you need rep to accept an answer if it has solved your problem. Franck Franck 1, 11 11 silver badges 17 17 bronze badges. Thanks Franck - that is an option. However I'm trying to avoid making any obvious design changes. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google.WCAG 2. You can use our contrast checker tool to determine what the ratio is between any foreground and background color.

So if you combine these two requirements, in order to be Level AA conformant, your page must have all of the following:. In other words, your link color has to be significantly different from the background color AND the surrounding text color, which also has to be significantly different from the background color. For example, if your page has black text on a white background and you use the standard blue color for links, the link color must be between approximately this color of blue 6a5eff and this color of blue fff.

Any lighter or darker and it will not have sufficient contrast to the adjacent black text or to the white background, respectively. If you go with the traditional blue, red, and purple colors for link states, each of these three colors would have to fit into the narrow window of available contrasts.

Some testing shows that this is possible… barely. The following colors for link states meet these requirements for a black on white page:.

The W3C does provide a list of web-safe colors that fit within these contrast requirements. These work out exactly to to black and to white, the very minimal levels allowed. This typically means that you would add the underline style to the link when it is hovered or tabbed to.

wcag 2.0 level aa color contrast

This is a Level A requirement. Because links that have current focus or are being activated will be visually apparent through the non-color designator, not to mention the fact the user has manually focused them, I believe the contrast rule does not or should not apply to the hover, focus, or active states. The 4. Because of the WCAG 2. Of course the easy solution to this is to simply underline links in their default state.

Interestingly, underlined links can be the exact same color as their surrounding text, though this is far from optimal. The contrast requirements for non-underlined links is a Level A guideline, which might suggest that they are of more importance than having high levels of contrast for non-linked content which, interestingly, is only addressed at Level AA and AAA — white text on a white background with white underlined links is seemingly allowed at Level A.

Regardless of conformance, it is vital for accessibility that there be good contrast for text and that links be discernible. So, are the WCAG contrast requirements too stringent and inflexible?Web accessibility makes it easier for people to use the web. It creates a better user experience for a wider audience, not just users with disabilities. These are the guidelines for making the web accessible to everyone, regardless of their needs or if they require assistive technologies to use the web.

The internet has evolved beyond websites with basic images and text to include dynamic content, rich multimedia, and more complex user interfaces. With that said, any business or organization with a website should make every effort to keep their own content accessible. These principals are here to help you build a website everyone can use to access the information you want them to know.

Under each principle, there are specific goals a website should work toward. Under each section, there is now specific criteria that can be tested.

In short, this grade shows how accessible a website is. As you can see, as compliance levels go up, so do the requirements to meet them. Luckily there are some great online tools that can help test websites to ensure they're usable for everyone! The Chrome web browser now has accessibility tools included in a user-friendly dashboard that can highlight issues and provide suggestions for improvement.

When the results are complete, you can view the page's overall accessibility score and view suggestions for improvement. Read more about the Chrome Dev Tools Accessibility tools here.

WAVE cannot tell you if your web content is accessible. Only a human can determine true accessibility. But, WAVE can help you, as a human, evaluate the accessibility of your web content.

Read more about WAVE tools here. Please sign in to leave a comment. AA Double A is viewed as the acceptable level of accessibility for many online services, which should work with most assistive technology which is now widely available on both desktop and mobile devices, or which can be purchased as a third-party installation.

wcag 2.0 level aa color contrast

AAA Triple A compliance is viewed as the gold standard level of accessibility, which provides everything for a complete accessible offering, including all the bells and whistles which make the difference between a very good experience and an excellent one.

Text contrast is a great example. It can be met by using clear, consistent link colors so all users can easily identify them as links, using clear hover colors so users tabbing through links on a site can easily identify them as they navigate.

It can be met by testing all content on the site to ensure that the text to background color ratio is above the 4.Success Criterion 1. Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least. Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface componentthat are pure decorationthat are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.

The intent of this Success Criterion is to provide enough contrast between text and its background so that it can be read by people with moderately low vision who do not use contrast-enhancing assistive technology. For people without color deficiencies, hue and saturation have minimal or no effect on legibility as assessed by reading performance Knoblauch et al. Color deficiencies can affect luminance contrast somewhat. Therefore, in the recommendation, the contrast is calculated in such a way that color is not a key factor so that people who have a color vision deficit will also have adequate contrast between the text and the background.

Text that is decorative and conveys no information is excluded. For example, if random words are used to create a background and the words could be rearranged or substituted without changing meaning, then it would be decorative and would not need to meet this criterion.

Text that is larger and has wider character strokes is easier to read at lower contrast.

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The contrast requirement for larger text is therefore lower. This allows authors to use a wider range of color choices for large text, which is helpful for design of pages, particularly titles.

Since there are so many different fonts, the general measures are used and a note regarding fancy or thin fonts is included. When evaluating this success criterion, the font size in points should be obtained from the user agent or calculated on font metrics in the way that user agents do.

Because different image editing applications default to different pixel densities e. When creating images of large-scale text, authors should ensure that the text in the resulting image is roughly equivalent to 1. For example, for a 72 PPI image, an author would need to use approximately 19 pt and 24 pt font sizes in order to successfully present images of large-scale text to a user.

The previously-mentioned contrast requirements for text also apply to images of text text that has been rendered into pixels and then stored in an image format as stated in Success Criterion 1.

This requirement applies to situations in which images of text were intended to be understood as text. Incidental text, such as in photographs that happen to include a street sign, are not included. Nor is text that for some reason is designed to be invisible to all viewers.

Stylized text, such as in corporate logos, should be treated in terms of its function on the page, which may or may not warrant including the content in the text alternative. Corporate visual guidelines beyond logo and logotype are not included in the exception.

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In this provision there is an exception that reads "that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content,". This exception is intended to separate pictures that have text in them from images of text that are done to replace text in order to get a particular look.

Images of text do not scale as well as text because they tend to pixelate. It is also harder to change foreground and background contrast and color combinations for images of text, which is necessary for some users.

Therefore, we suggest using text wherever possible, and when not, consider supplying an image of higher resolution.

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The minimum contrast success criterion 1. If any of these are used in a page, the text needs to provide sufficient contrast. Although this Success Criterion only applies to text, similar issues occur for content presented in charts, graphs, diagrams, and other non-text-based information. Content presented in this manner should also have good contrast to ensure that more users can access the information.

wcag 2.0 level aa color contrast

Hues are perceived differently by users with color vision deficiencies both congenital and acquired resulting in different colors and relative luminance contrasts than for normally sighted users. Because of this, effective contrast and readability are different for this population.Though this distinction is important, it can be confusing. There are three compliance levels within WCAG 2. Each level includes guidelines that must be met to consider the website accessible for all users.

The distinction between conformance levels gives developers an organized structure for minimal, acceptable, and optimal accessibility. The different WCAG levels also provide more flexibility, so even very complex websites or cutting-edge technologies can maintain a minimum level of compliance. As previously mentioned, WCAG 2. These criteria cover everything from site navigation to text to videos to inputs and more.

However, WCAG does not outline specific actions that every website must take, rather it states what accessible websites should do. These conformance requirements essentially prohibit elements that would make the website inaccessible. Websites that do not at least meet WCAG 2.

Hopefully, your site already meets at least WCAG 2. This conformance level is used in most accessibility rules and regulations around the world, including the ADA. To meet WCAG 2. The meaning conveyed and the functionality available is the same. Your site may not be WCAG 2. A WCAG checklist can help you go through the requirements in an organized way and take them on one at a time.

Testing for accessibility problems is a great place to start. Compliance at this level makes your site accessible to the maximum number of users, and makes this experience easy. If your website or application caters to the elderly or people with disabilities, WCAG Level AAA compliance can help to ensure that your audience can use your site easily.

This also shows that you are considerate of your audience and their needs. Since many websites are not accessible, your users will notice this extra level of care.

Understanding the different compliance levels of WCAG 2. They can also help you make changes to your website or applications so you can better serve your audience. Even if you do not understand all of these guidelines, taking steps to test for and correct accessibility problems will improve your online presence and can prevent expensive lawsuits.The same information is communicated to the user and everything retains its meaning.

In the WCAG 2. With each support level there are requirements around the level of contrast you can use when using two colors together:. These ratios are relevant when you put one color on top of another like gray text on a white background. From WebAIM :. WCAG 2. Level AAA requires a contrast ratio of for normal text and 4. Large text is defined as 14 point typically As you can see, there are combinations of color and size that will correlate to a certain level of accessibility support.

A WCAG Overview — Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 and 2.0 Explained

And we can modify that within a design. Great, so what does that mean? Luckily there are a number of contrast testing tools available. My personal favorite is one built by the good folks at WebAIM.

It has a simple UI and tells you exactly what you need to be compliant. Skip to main navigation Skip to main content Continue about your business.

Understanding Success Criterion 1.4.3: Contrast (Minimum)

Black Lives Matter, contribute. With each support level there are requirements around the level of contrast you can use when using two colors together: Level A : minimum contrast ratio Level AA : 4. Testing Your Colors Great, so what does that mean? Back to main navigation Back to main content.Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least.

Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface componentthat are pure decorationthat are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.

Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.

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The intent of this Success Criterion is to provide enough contrast between text and its background so that it can be read by people with moderately low vision who do not use contrast-enhancing assistive technology. For people without color deficiencies, hue and saturation have minimal or no effect on legibility as assessed by reading performance Knoblauch et al. Color deficiencies can affect luminance contrast somewhat.

What are the Levels of WCAG Compliance?

Therefore, in the recommendation, the contrast is calculated in such a way that color is not a key factor so that people who have a color vision deficit will also have adequate contrast between the text and the background. Text that is decorative and conveys no information is excluded. For example, if random words are used to create a background and the words could be rearranged or substituted without changing meaning, then it would be decorative and would not need to meet this criterion.

Text that is larger and has wider character strokes is easier to read at lower contrast. The contrast requirement for larger text is therefore lower. This allows authors to use a wider range of color choices for large text, which is helpful for design of pages, particularly titles.

Since there are so many different fonts, the general measures are used and a note regarding fancy or thin fonts is included. Note 1: When evaluating this success criterion, the font size in points should be obtained from the user agent or calculated on font metrics in the way that user agents do. Note 2: Because different image editing applications default to different pixel densities e. When creating images of large-scale text, authors should ensure that the text in the resulting image is roughly equivalent to 1.

For example, for a 72 PPI image, an author would need to use approximately 19 pt and 24 pt font sizes in order to successfully present images of large-scale text to a user. The previously-mentioned contrast requirements for text also apply to images of text text that has been rendered into pixels and then stored in an image format as stated in Success Criterion 1.

Contrast Checker

This requirement applies to situations in which images of text were intended to be understood as text. Incidental text, such as in photographs that happen to include a street sign, are not included. Nor is text that for some reason is designed to be invisible to all viewers. Stylized text, such as in corporate logos, should be treated in terms of its function on the page, which may or may not warrant including the content in the text alternative.

Corporate visual guidelines beyond logo and logotype are not included in the exception. In this provision there is an exception that reads "that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content,". This exception is intended to separate pictures that have text in them from images of text that are done to replace text in order to get a particular look.

Note: Images of text do not scale as well as text because they tend to pixelate. It is also harder to change foreground and background contrast and color combinations for images of text, which is necessary for some users. Therefore, we suggest using text wherever possible, and when not, consider supplying an image of higher resolution. The minimum contrast success criterion 1. If any of these are used in a page, the text needs to provide sufficient contrast.

Although this Success Criterion only applies to text, similar issues occur for content presented in charts, graphs, diagrams, and other non-text-based information. Content presented in this manner should also have good contrast to ensure that more users can access the information.

See also Understanding Success Criterion 1.


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